Parasitic organisms surround us everywhere. They cause dangerous diseases for humans - sleeping sickness, trichomoniasis, giardiasis, ascariasis and others. An increase in the number of parasitic diseases is registered annually in the world. According to WHO clinical data, 3. 5 billion people are infected with parasites. 70% of them are children. What are the symptoms of pathogenic microorganisms in the human body? How to get them out of there?
Etiology of parasitic diseases
Parasites exist and feed on living organisms: plants, animals, people. They can reside permanently in the host's body or temporarily (during the breeding period). The types of parasitic organisms that live in humans are:
- Ectoparasites. They live on a person's skin and scalp or external organs. 92% are temporary or optional parasites (blood-sucking insects, leeches). They are able to exist independently, outside the host organism.
- Endoparasites. They live in the internal organs and tissues of the human body.
Pathogens exist in all kingdoms of nature. They are able to feed on various tissues and cells. The causative agents of amoebic dysentery and chronic colitis (Entamoeba histolytica) affect the mucous membranes of the large intestine, creating bleeding and open wounds called amoebic ulcers. The organ cannot function normally, pathological changes begin in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
Main types of pathogenic microorganisms:
- Protozoa - ciliate (balantidia), amoeba (dysentery), trypanosome (sleeping sickness is caused by a parasite that can affect the central nervous system, has the name - Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense) and others. They live in the intestines and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, causing serious intestinal infections; organs of a person's urinary and reproductive system.
- Worms are the most common and numerous human parasites. Representatives: worms (Trematoda), tapeworms, flatworms - (Cestoda), roundworms - (Nematoda), acanthocephalus (Acanthocephali). They live inside a person in the intestines, in the stomach, in the lungs; able to penetrate the heart, eyes, urinary and genital organs. 2-3% live in the muscles and bones, brain.
Main infection methods:
- Stings of blood-sucking insects (mosquitoes, horseflies, flies can spread infections over long distances).
- Contact with animals. According to clinical studies by parasitologists, dogs are the main asymptomatic carriers of echinococcosis.
- Unwashed fruits and vegetables.
- Non-compliance with personal hygiene rules (getting your hands dirty before eating) - up to 86% of children under 14 are infected in this way.
- Drink unboiled water, drink water from unverified reservoirs and sources.
- Swimming in prohibited places. Parasites that live in water bodies enter the human body through the skin or by accidental ingestion. They also live in fish and shellfish (a reservoir for bovine and swine tapeworm - a small lake snail).
- Unprotected sex - trichomoniasis.
The clinical picture of diseases caused by parasites
The symptoms of the disease depend on the type of parasite and its location. Disease manifestations are influenced by the patient's general health and age. A person is able to live with parasites in the human body for a long time and not know their presence. With decreased immunity, he will show the first symptom of infection.
Signs of the disease begin with fever, weakness and fatigue. The clinical picture of diseases caused by cestodes or amoebas is different.
One and a half billion people worldwide suffer from nematode infections, 70% of them are children. Different types of helminths can cause different diseases. The main symptoms of the presence of worms parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, the body are:
- Dyspeptic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Stool disorders in humans, persistent tenesmus.
- The first signs of hemorrhoids.
- General symptoms of bodily intoxication.
Helminths, affecting the body's sensory system, cause keratitis, iritis, conjunctivitis of the eyes. In the terminal stage, the person completely loses his vision.
The second most common disease in the world is echinococcosis. Echinococcus, a liver parasite, causes the following symptoms in a person: heaviness, pain in the right hypochondrium, chronic fatigue, yellow skin and mucous membranes. In the terminal stages: abdominal bleeding, sepsis and liver abscesses and cysts with possible rupture and release of purulent content in the abdominal cavity (peritonitis).
In pulmonary echinococcosis, patients show signs of suffocation, severe chest pain, coughing (in an early - dry, terminal stage - with green purulent secretion and blood). According to studies and clinical observations, an adult patient develops pleurisy, inflammation of the lung tissue, peritonitis (consequences of ruptured cysts and the release of pus into the pleural cavity and bronchi).
In 2% of cases, echinococci are capable of affecting the brain: a connective tissue, a dense capsule is formed around the ribbon, surrounded by a membrane of brain tissues with inflammatory changes - glia. In MRI, several foci of parasitic cysts and hemorrhages are diagnosed. Hyperemia captures the membranes in the bladder area. In the initial stage, the patient complains of constant headaches, dizziness, vomiting, extremity tremors and epileptic seizures. In the terminal, paresis of the lower or upper extremities develops. The patient is diagnosed with mental and neurogenic personality disorders: delirium, manic-depressive states, dementia.
In river fish - ruffles, perches, pike, tapeworms (tapeworms) live, capable of causing diphyllobotriasis in humans. The disease is asymptomatic for a long time in the intestines of the rectum. In the context of a decrease in immunity or an exacerbation of chronic diseases, the appearance of symptoms is diagnosed. Patients have poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, pain in the abdomen, unstable stools, persistent tenesmus, weakness, fatigue, paresthesia of the lower limbs. With hypersensitivity, a rash and papules appear on the skin. In the terminal phase, the patient is diagnosed with B12 - anemia. Anisakids live in marine fish - herring, cod, pollack, salmon, sea bass. They cause the development of anisacidosis. The symptomatology of the disease is similar to diphyllobotriasis.
Parasites cause venereal infectious diseases. In countries around the world, 250 million people develop trichomoniasis infection every year. Clinical symptoms of trichomoniasis:
- Hyperemia and edema of the vaginal mucosa.
- Burning and constant itching.
- Pain when urinating.
- Pain during intercourse.
- Dark green with blood and mucus from the vagina.
Trichomoniasis is dangerous for pregnant women and children. The disease causes serious complications in the embryo and the newborn.
Treatment and diagnosis of human parasitic diseases
In 85% of cases, parasitic diseases start abruptly: high body temperature, diarrhea, nausea, weakness or other symptoms. A person seeks a doctor for advice. The doctor examines the patient, makes anamnesis, clarifies doubts and prescribes referral for laboratory and instrumental exams. Patients ask: how to treat? How to remove and expel pathogenic microorganisms? Treatment methods depend on the type and type of parasite (protozoan, worm).
- FBC with leukocyte count and ESR. An increase in ESR indicates an inflammatory process in the body; an increase in the number of eosinophils - for nematous infection.
- Immunoassay and immunological blood test.
- With echinococcosis, an x-ray is taken - an examination of the chest, intestines (with a contrast agent) to establish the location of the cysts.
- Stool study for parasites, general coprogram.
- Smears of the mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix with trichomoniasis.
- PCR - this analysis allows to identify the infectious agent with 98% accuracy.
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, genitourinary system.
- ECG, EEG.
After receiving the tests, the doctor will prescribe the treatment. The scheme includes reducing the symptoms of the disease, destroying the parasites and removing them from the body. The patient must follow a strict diet. Food must be steamed or boiled. Exclusion from the diet of fatty, spicy and salty foods. To get rid of the infection, they use drug therapy (prescribing pills, injections, suppositories). The drugs of choice against protozoal infections are antiprotozoal and antibacterial agents. Surgical treatment is used only in the terminal stages of the disease. In addition, antihistamines are prescribed to relieve inflammation and swelling.
In the intestinal stages of ascariasis, the doctor prescribes anthelmintic drugs. The pills destroy the parasites and eliminate the symptoms of the disease. Eye drops are dripped onto the conjunctiva and can kill and remove pathogenic microorganisms.
Pills alone do not cure the disease; in addition, folk remedies and herbal medicines are used. The main herbs for removing worms are tansy, wormwood, marsh calamus and fennel.
With diphyllobotriasis and anisacidosis, patients receive a strict curative diet and medicinal substances that can remove and heal the body of pathogenic microorganisms.
For sleeping sickness, a drug is prescribed that can rid patients of trypanosomes.
For sexually transmitted diseases, gynecologists prescribe antiprotozoal drugs, additional suppositories or vaginal pills. Before going to bed, baths with chamomile and calendula are advised to relieve itching and burning.
Folk remedies to get rid of parasites
Consider an herbal infusion recipe for worms. To prepare the infusion, take 4 g of absinthe, 5 pieces of cloves; add 2 g of knotweed, calamus and thyme, 2 g of lemongrass and tansy inflorescences, 0. 5 g of valerian. Mix well and pour 500 ml of hot water, let it ferment for 12 hours and drink it during the day after the meal.
5 g of chamomile, common tansy, hawthorn and oak bark are poured with hot water and placed in a warm place for 7 to 8 hours. It is advisable to use a thermos. To remove helminths, drink 5 tablespoons after meals, 3 times a day.
To get rid of the worms completely, use enemas with decoctions of herbs, garlic. To prepare it, 5 to 6 cloves of garlic are poured into half a glass of cold water; put on fire and bring to a boil, but do not let it boil. Then cool down and perform the procedure 2 hours before leaving the house. Along with feces, parasites leave the intestines.
Eliminating earthworms with baking soda is an unusual and untested method. With it, enemas and oral solutions are made. Before the procedures, you need to talk to your doctor.
It is important to remember that herbs have contraindications for use. Before using them, you must consult a doctor. The main contraindications: pregnancy, childhood, gastrointestinal diseases.
With timely treatment, the person gets rid of parasites completely. The patient must correctly follow the doctor's prescription and take the medications. After a course of therapy, he must undergo medical examinations for one year and undergo examinations.
Prevention aims to prevent cysts, larvae of parasites from entering the human body. The doctor will tell the patient what the worms are like, about the methods of protection and first aid for parasitic infections. Medicine did not create vaccines and vaccines against these infections.
- Maintain personal hygiene. The person should wash their hands with soap or other disinfectant after using the bathroom, walking, handling soil and water and before each meal.
- Mothers need to monitor and teach their children how to maintain personal hygiene. Do not put your hands or dirty objects in your mouth.
- Vegetables, strawberries and fruits should be washed in warm (hot) water before use, preferably with baking soda to kill parasites and cysts.
- The water must be boiled before drinking. Do not drink from unverified sources (water bodies, rivers).
- You cannot swim in prohibited places - reservoirs and ponds not equipped.
- Monitor your pets' health. Take preventive courses against parasites. Use eye drops applied at the withers for dogs and cats as prophylaxis and first aid for parasitic infections.
- Prepare fish and meat products strictly according to the technology.
- Have a partner, avoid promiscuous sex.