Intestinal parasitesare helminths that parasitize within the human intestine. It can be a parasite or several at once. The more helminths there are in the body, the more health deteriorates. Long-term polyinvasion leads to complete exhaustion of the body. Some migratory representatives can block bile ducts and cause obstructive jaundice.
List of intestinal parasites
In domestic practice, it is somewhat conventionally accepted to divide all helminths into tropical and non-tropical.
Tropical parasites are found in countries with corresponding climate - in Africa, Southeast Asia. This includes schistosomes, filarias, wucherias and many others. You can only infect tropical helminths in the territory of the respective country, experimenting with local cuisine, using water from an unknown source of supply, neglecting the rules of sanitation and hygiene.
Infection with tropical helminthiasis by a healthy person in a patient is impossible, since certain environmental conditions and the body of an intermediate host are necessary to complete a complete developmental cycle.
More than 300 parasites are known today, about 100 of them are registered on the European continent. A significant part of them parasitize precisely in the human intestine.
The most common classification of intestinal parasites according to their body structure. The following classes are differentiated:
- (they are also called trematodes) - they have a leaf or oval shape, the main differential is the presence of shoots;
- tape (also called cestodes) - can reach a considerable length (up to several meters); they are in the form of a lace or flat ribbon;
- round (they are also called nematodes) - differ in the corresponding shape.
Among the most relevant intestinal helminthiasis in humans are known:
Each helminth is characterized by stages of development and change of several hosts.
Symptoms of intestinal parasite
The clinical manifestations of intestinal helminthiasis have a lot in common, so it is almost impossible to determine the diagnosis before the laboratory examination. In this sense, it is possible to distinguish the acute and chronic forms of helminthiasis and to describe the corresponding clinical symptoms.
It is characterized by pronounced general symptoms, caused both by the action of the parasite itself and by the response of the host's organs and systems. Among the most significant symptoms:
- subfebrile temperature;
- rashes of varying intensity and type (spots, papules, less often pustules and bleeding), usually in combination with itchy skin;
- diffuse pain in muscles and joints;
- swelling of the skin and subcutaneous fat;
- abdominal syndrome (diffuse abdominal pain, repeated nausea and vomiting, prolonged diarrhea without pathological impurities).
The severity of the above clinical signs is individual. For one person, this can be a mild discomfort, while for another - a severe deterioration in health, which cannot go unnoticed.
Occurs in the absence of proper treatment. The site (intestinal symptoms) associated with mechanical damage to the intestinal wall comes to the fore. General clinical symptoms are less pronounced. As a result of chronic helminth damage, they discover:
- impaired absorption of nutrients;
- inhibition of metabolic processes (exhaustion, anemia);
- some helminths cause the formation of neoblastosis.
Spontaneous cure in the chronic phase of helminthiasis is almost impossible.
Characteristics of certain types of helminthiasis
Only a doctor can guess the development of this or that helminthiasis. The characteristic clinical signs are typical only for certain types of helminths. For example:
affection of the distal intestine (hemocolitis);
atrophy of the gastric and intestinal mucosa;
obstructive jaundice as a result of the formation of an echinococcal cyst in the hilum of the liver;
potentiation of carcinogenesis
Confirmation of the diagnosis of either helminthiasis is only possible after a thorough examination.
How the parasite gets infected and develops in the body
Infection with intestinal parasites can occur in 2 ways:
- through the skin - the so-called percutaneous route;
- by dirty hands, poorly washed vegetables and fruits, contaminated water and food.
Intestinal parasites, as the name suggests, do not leave the human digestive tract. In the future, the parasite can develop in 2 ways: simple and complex.
With a simple developmental cycle, an adult develops from a helminth egg that has entered the human body. Clinical symptoms are caused by damage to either part of the gastrointestinal tract.
In a complex developmental cycle, a larva forms from an egg and the parasite migrates through various organ systems, which causes a variety of clinical symptoms.
Methods for the diagnosis of parasitic intestinal diseases
For the diagnosis and treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases, you should consult an infectious disease physician. Large cities have special medical centers and even inpatient departments.
The diagnosis of helminthic invasion begins with a general clinical blood test: the main distinguishing feature is severe eosinophilia - an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood.
Among the specific research methods are known:
- parasitological method - detection of worm eggs in the patient's feces; for this, a fresh portion of feces is collected and examined under a microscope; if necessary, a means of transport is used for delivery to the laboratory;
- serological method - detection of class M immunoglobulins (acute phase);
- instrumental methods (ultrasound, tomography) - for the purpose of differential diagnosis to exclude tumor processes.
The result of just one study is not an independent diagnosis. Only a doctor can assess the patient's condition and make a preliminary diagnosis.
The treatment of any helminthiasis must be done under the supervision of a doctor. The independent use of anthelmintic drugs (including for prophylaxis) is unacceptable, as most drugs are quite toxic.
An integrated approach is required, including dietary foods, medicines and folk remedies.
There are no strict rules governing nutrition for helminthiasis. Just follow the rules of healthy eating:
- consuming enough low-fat dairy products;
- includes a variety of cereals, egg dishes, lean fish and meat in the diet;
- refusing alcoholic beverages;
- reduce or eliminate semi-finished products, carbonated water, foods with a high content of preservatives and flavor enhancers;
- all products should be well washed (vegetables, fruits, berries), if possible - thermally processed (steak "with blood" is not allowed) to avoid reinfection.
When prescribing a specific medication, the doctor will individually explain which products should be limited or totally excluded.
In the treatment of helminthiasis, universal drugs are used that destroy several types of helminths at once.
The duration of the treatment course is selected individually. In combination with antiparasitic drugs, hepatoprotective and enterosorbent agents are used.
The use of some anthelmintic drugs involves combining it with an enema. An enema is a common cleansing enema - there are no special features. Whether she needs it or not, the doctor decides.
The efficiency is questionable. Among the most popular are:
- pumpkin seeds;
- alcoholic tincture of green (green) nuts;
- alcohol tincture of chanterelles;
- is a freshly prepared pine cone decoction.
A combination of popular recipes and traditional medicines is perfectly acceptable.
Prevention of parasitic diseases
Without specific means of prophylaxis. Given the simplicity and ease of infection, it is very difficult to protect against helminth invasion. For this, you need:
- always wash vegetables and fruits, rinse them with boiling water;
- do not store ready and semi-finished products in the next refrigerator;
- without fail and wash your hands well;
- follow the cooking rules.