Helminthiasis, that is, disease caused by parasites exposed to more than half the world's population. Many people do not know that their body is eating away one of four types of hearts. In the course of their life worms can damage vital organs of the owner, depriving him of his health and even leading to death.
Indications for tests for worms
Most often, the infection with worms occurs during a meal. Unwashed vegetables and fruits, touching food with dirty hands, poorly treated water, lack of heat treatment of fish and meat — all this causes the appearance of parasites in the body. Helminth eggs are also passed via bedding and underwear. The presence in the house Pets requires strict adherence to the rules of hygiene: cats and dogs are often carriers of worms, and stroked a pet can be the carrier of parasites.
At risk and young children: their fragile body is more vulnerable to worms than adult. Even if your child forgets to wash hands before eating, he is at risk for infection from their peers in child care. In addition to household, there are more "exotic" ways of dissemination of parasites: for example, some types of worms can enter the human body directly through the skin. After the appearance of worms in one of the households usually get sick and the rest of the family.
For the timely detection and destruction of helminths it is necessary to pass studies that detect the presence of parasites in the body. This is normally a simple and painless analysis.
Tests for worms, depending on the reasons for the assignment is divided into the following types:
- Prevention is undertaken in a timely manner to detect the presence of parasites, even in the absence of symptoms. Procedure held as under their own initiative and through clinical examination. Recommended frequency — at least once a year.
- Barrier — prevent the spread of disease among population groups. So, when enrolling a child in kindergarten or pool, he will need help, which includes information about the absence of worms. Workers in the field sales and food production need to be tested for worms annually in the design of medical books. As in the case of preventive tests, examination usually involves laboratory examination of stool.
- By prescription — if applying to the clinic with symptoms such as weight loss, itching in the anus, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, or the appearance of diseases, often caused by parasites, the patient is prescribed the analysis of a feces on eggs of helminths, as well as blood tests for antibodies. In these cases, the survey carried out more carefully, if in doubt about the reliability of the results of the tests administered again.
Regular inspection of all family members for the presence of worms is an important part of maintaining health. This is especially important if there are risk factors: the presence in the house of children and animals, gardening, swimming in natural water bodies, drinking water sources, boreholes and wells, eating food without proper heat treatment (the steak with blood, fat, sushi, etc.). The consequences of a failure to detect the presence of worms in the body can be very serious: some species of these parasites damage the intestinal wall, causing sepsis, causing a disruption of the Central nervous system and destroying his internal organs.
Note to protect against worms, observe some simple rules: wash your hands after using the toilet, walking on the street, contact with animals and just before eating. Vegetables and fruits it is desirable not only washed, but subjected to heat treatment. Meat and fish before eating better to stand in the freezer at least a day and then boil or fry until fully cooked.
What are the tests for worms and how to prepare for the study
There are several types of tests that accurately detect the presence or absence of parasites in the body: feces analysis on helminth eggs, scraping, blood test for antibodies. Also indicates the presence of worms can results of General blood tests — the patient has elevated hemoglobin and ESR.
The analysis on eggs of worms (helminths)
This type of analysis is the most popular way to determine the presence of intestinal worms (parasites of all types) in the body. In the study of faeces specialist does not see the parasites themselves, but only helminth eggs.
In General, the delivery of the analysis of a feces on eggs of helminths does not require special preparation. The only limitation: it is not recommended to take anti-parasitic drugs, antibiotics, drugs for diarrhoea. A special sterile container for biological material can be obtained in advance from the laboratory, clinic or in a regular pharmacy. Immediately after defecation the faeces are collected in a jar, which must be immediately transferred to the examination or to store in the refrigerator for 8 hours.
If the result of the analysis (in the rate of helminth eggs should not be detected in feces) is better to take the test two more times on other days. The accuracy of the first studies of many parasites is only 50%, while three obtained the same result indicates 99% the lack of worms.
Despite its simplicity and popularity, the stool is inferior in his informative more modern method — blood tests for antibodies. Below we will consider ways to more effectively detect the presence of the most common types of parasites.
Analysis on enterobiasis
Enterobiasis is the prevalence of the leading position among helminths. It is called pinworms — small white worms. The disease is particularly common in children of preschool and younger school age. The main symptom is severe itching in the anus, especially in evening and at night.
The most effective for the detection of enterobiasis is a smear with a cotton swab or scrape with a special spatula from the area near the anus, normal stool not effective. The procedure is performed in the morning after a night pinworms come out "on the surface" to lay eggs. It is important to carry out the procedure before going to the toilet and without washing of the perineum. Store the resulting biomaterial can be in the refrigerator for 8 hours, but it is better to transfer it to the lab.
Analysis of ascariasis
Ascariasis also is widespread in children and adults: it affects up to 20% of the population. Worms, ascarids, and pinworms, are a group of nematodes, however, look much worse: their body length can reach 30-40 cm. The source of the disease are usually fresh vegetables and fruit in the soil of Ascaris eggs can survive up to several years, getting "on the table" straight from the garden. Symptoms of ascariasis is weakness, fatigue, itching in the anal area. Roundworm can spread throughout the body, causing liver damage, respiratory tract, gall bladder — in this case, the primary characteristics are added to the secondary, caused by diseases. The development of ascariasis may even lead to death of the patient.
The most effective for the detection of Ascaris in the body a blood test for antibodies. It does not require special training, however, it is advisable to refrain from eating for four hours prior to analysis.
Analysis of opisthorchiasis
Opisthorchiasis cause flat worms — cat Fluke. The disease has a strong local distribution: the majority of patients live in Russia and the CIS. Getting can opisthorchiasis by eating contaminated fish, which is the intermediate host of the parasite. Worms develop in the biliary tract and pancreatic ducts, causing infections, allergic reactions, liver disease, flank pain and fever. The lack of timely treatment can lead to Central nervous system, chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers.
The most effective for the detection of feline Fluke is a blood test for specific IgG antibodies. The exact result can be obtained when conducting research in the period from the sixth to the eighth week after infection. In the transition to the chronic stage indicators can come to normal, in this case to determine the opisthorchiasis by this method will not succeed.
Analysis for trichinosis
Cause trichinosis Trichinella worms that enter the human body with contaminated meat and bacon. The products in large stores are carefully tested for the presence of the parasite, therefore a victim of Trichinella usually become private farmers, hunters and people who buy meat in untested areas. The eggs of this parasite is not able to destroy an ordinary heat treatment, it does not help and salting, Smoking. To infect just one small piece.
Symptoms of the disease in the first two to three weeks to appear allergic reactions, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting. Then there is the disease of the body in which developed worms: parasites can select any area of the body and destroy it for many years. In the end, trichinosis can lead to patient's death or irreversible disturbances in the body.
If you suspect the presence of Trichinella patient is sent for a blood test for specific antibodies. With a negative result and continuing symptoms is recommended to undergo re-examination in a few weeks: in the early stages of the disease may not occur, high precision is provided by the investigation of blood from the second to fourth week after infection.
Analysis of strongyloidiasis
Strongyloidiasis cause white worms are called intestinal anguilla. This parasite lives mainly in places with a tropical climate, very often from the defeat they suffer the gardeners and farmers. The parasite can enter the human body in any contact of open skin with the earth, for example, when walking barefoot or when weeding the beds.
Once in the body, Burkina Faso leaves the skin with a red mark that persists for up to several days and which causes intense itching. The following symptoms may be classical (itching in the area of the anus, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain), and completely wordless. The parasite can live in its host for years without causing severe inconvenience. However, if weakened immunity strongyloidiasis leads to patient's death in more than half of the cases.
To detect the disease effective analysis of feces: the study of feces not visible helminth eggs, and larvae. A blood test for antibodies, however, gives more accurate results up to 85%.
Lesson — hazardous to health and life, a parasitic disease that can lead to disability or even death. Timely access to a physician and subsequent treatment are a guarantee that the patient will avoid possible complications. Tests for worms must pass at least once a year and only in modern laboratories where people are the most effective methods of research.