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Some are only visible under the microscope while others reach 20 meters in length. Some show virtually no signs of its existence and live in the body for years, and others lead to rapid death. Let's see, what are worms in humans and how dangerous they are?
What is the difference between the different types of worms?
Place of residence
Mainly adult worms live in the human gut. And their larvae can migrate throughout the body, causing a lot of unpleasant symptoms of your stay.
For example, Ascaris – its Mature individuals live in the intestines and practically does not manifest itself, so, imagine the presence of organism is not so simple. However, roundworm eggs are ingested via the oral cavity and which have reached the intestine, begin to travel throughout the body with the blood until they reach the lungs and, from there, through the ingestion and expectoration of phlegm back into the intestine.
Other individuals, such as the opisthorchis (Fluke) are striking bile duct. Paragon (pulmonary dens) lives in the lungs, muscles or the diaphragm. A tapeworm may exist in any organ, including the bone tissue.
Methods of ingestion
Most often, eggs or larvae of the parasite enter the body by oral. It is necessary to eat a dirty Apple, or take in a mouth dirty hands (often this "sin" children) and helminth eggs here. But this is not the only method of infection. For parasites such as Ancylostoma is not difficult to get to the host through the skin. Helminth eggs can easily get into the body with the breath (rubbed nose against the fur of my cat), through wounds or broken skin or via the genitals (while swimming in the pond).
The division of the life cycle
- Some individuals cycle "egg-larva-sexy matura species" occurs without a change of owner (within the body).
- In others, the development cycle involves multiple hosts. Vivid examples – the broad tapeworm or Ancylostoma.
Pinworms are small nematodes in white color, which can reach 1.5 cm in length. They can be seen in the stool with the naked eye – look like cutting threads. Life pinworms does not exceed a few weeks.
Pinworm — the most common parasite in children.
Nematode triggers enterobiasis disease that most often affects children of preschool and younger school age.
To get enterobiasis easy sources are already sick people-carriers, things of personal items and items of General use. The patient may infect themselves.
Females pinworms in the evening or night crawl out of the rectum to the anus and lay eggs on the skin around it. They are covered with a mucus that causes itching and forces the person to scratch anus – so the eggs get on the fingers, under the fingernails and begin its spread. If you do not wash your hands afterwards to get food, or chew nails – the eggs get into the intestine and begin to grow until you turn into an adult. This happens rainwise. Similarly, the infected patient and the surrounding people – bed linen, dishes and household items, which are touched with unwashed hands sick, become sources of pinworms.
It is known that ascariasis hurts 25% of the population of the globe. This nematode can reach 40 cm in length and lives for about a year, then dies and is excreted together with the feces.
The source of infection – Pets and contaminated vegetables or fruits. In addition, you can easily get ascariasis without observing the rules of personal hygiene after excavation.
Roundworm found in each 4 people.
Eggs of Ascaris can get from the faeces of animals into the ground. Under favorable conditions, the egg develops into a larva, which remains viable for 1 to 6 months. If such a Mature egg enters the body, then after a few hours, recens exclusi with its larvae will start their promotion from the intestines to the lungs via the bloodstream. Once in the lungs, it will grow and cause coughing, accompanied by expectoration of large amounts of phlegm. Together with phlegm larvae will travel into the throat, there will be re-ingestion and getting into the small intestine. Is the destination in which it will develop into an adult.
The front end of the roundworm has a hole, framed by some semblance of teeth to be attached to the intestinal wall and feeds on all substances to which a person receives with food.
Vlasoglavy are small white worms of 4-5 cm in length. The name of these nematodes comes from their peculiar shape – the front part of the whipworm is thin, like hair.
Vlasoglavy live and reproduce in the large intestine, feeding on the blood and mucosa of the intestine. Life individuals can last up to 5 years. Females lay eggs in the intestinal wall, where they fall into the feces and excreted.
Whipworm can cause acute appendicitis.
If the eggs happen to get into a favorable environment, then they will begin to Mature larvae. The most favorable condition for them is the contact with the ground. From the earth to ripen the eggs fall to the paws of animals, roots and berries that grow close to the soil, and from there (if you eat poorly washed fruit) are moved to the host organism.
Develop trapped in the body of the larvae in the pancreas or cecum (which could trigger appendicitis), and thence creeping to the place of permanent residence – the large intestine.
The species Trichinella
These worms are small (1-4 mm) cause dangerous disease – trichinosis, can lead to death.
The larvae enter the body from meat that has not passed sufficient heat treatment. Sick people and carnivores.
The reproduction of individuals begins in the small intestine. As soon as the female lays the eggs, they through the intestinal wall, along with blood begins its journey throughout the body. When injected into muscle tissue, the larvae increase in size to form a capsule around. Over time the capsule is impregnated with lime, and has existed for several years.
The species Trichinella can migrate to vital organs.
In contact with the larvae in the heart starts trichinellosis myocarditis, if the lungs – pneumonia and pulmonary edema. In addition, the species Trichinella affects vision, hearing and Central nervous system. Fever, swelling, aching muscles and limited movement are all symptoms of trichinosis.
Ancylostoma is divided into two types – duodenal (up to 14 mm in length) and the us (up to 10 mm in length).
Hookworms live mainly in the upper parts of the small intestine, attaching a suction Cup to the oral mucosa of the colon. They feed on particles of mucous and blood (which often causes anemia, as one individual can consume one-third milliliters of blood). Longitude of life individuals – up to 8 years.
Infection can occur from person to person.
Eggs stand out in the environment through faeces. Which got into the soil they can remain viable for 2-3 months (depending on environment).
Infection occurs from person to person (shaking hands, sharing household items), and in violation of the rules of hygiene after working the soil, eating unwashed fruits and vegetables. Sometimes penetrate the skin, walking barefoot, lying on the grass or the ground.
The mechanism of infection, life cycle and modes of reproduction of such species as broad tapeworm, bovine and pork tapeworm like. It is tapeworms, which consist of huge number of proglottids – segments. Each segmentum, in fact, represents a single organism. Over time, devoratis stuffed eggs go out with feces intermediate hosts. Then, they either die or hirundo other animals.
Huge helminth, which reaches 10 meters in length. Located in the large intestine, attachiatus head with two suction cups to the wall. To exist in a person, this parasite can 10 years.
A tapeworm is the largest parasite of man.
Lentetsa eggs remain viable in the aquatic environment. They hirundo crustaceans, and in their body turn into procercoids in, and then displays the next hirundo additional host fish (normally, this is a predatory species). From the intestines of fish eggs will be spread in her body, forming muscle fibers Finns (larvae are able to remain viable up to 5 years). If insufficient heat treatment, the larvae did not die smoothly enters the body of the definitive host – man.
Often the presence of lentara in the body can be detected only because of who came out of hirundo, as his presence usually is not accompanied by any symptoms.
This parasite can be from 4 to 10 meters in length. Intermediate host – magna corniger cattle, final – man. The giant worm can live in human intestines for 20 years and in all that time to produce about 10 billion eggs.
Beef tapeworm in a week grows to 50 cm.
Often, animals infected with bovine tapeworm, eating feces contaminated grass. While in the intestine, the eggs penetrate through its walls into the General circulation and are carried to muscle tissue. There they form the Finns, which remain viable for 3-5 years.
If people eat do not end up cooked meat, the Finns cleared and start to actively grow, develop, and produce new segments, attachiatus to the intestinal wall. During the day, the parasite can grow about 10 cm.
This worm also consists of numerous segments and reaches a length of 3-4 meters. The process of development in organisms interim and permanent owner is the same as that of the bovine tapeworm. The only difference is that devoratis have a much more active and able to crawl out of the anus.
Pork tapeworm under the multiple increase.
Carriers of alveoli are foxes, foxes, wolves and other canines. The human body can get by eating unwashed fruits and vegetables contaminated by feces of infected animals or contact with their fur.
This small parasite can lead to death.
The parasite is small, to 4 mm long. Deposited in the liver, after which it begins to form Eurocity – cysts. The accumulation of Eurocity gradually expands, strikes close tissue and forms a node, up to 15 cm Separate the bubbles from the blood are carried throughout the body and form secondary foci. The site can grow into nearby organs – heart, pancreas, and sometimes in the kidneys and bladder.
Alveococcosis is very dangerous to humans, as it can lead to death. At the advanced stage of the disease is not treatable.
Siberian (cat) Fluke is small in size (up to 20 mm long and 2 mm wide) dens, habitats which are – liver, biliary tract and pancreas.
The longest-lived parasite
Definitive hosts of the parasite, humans and animals, which feed mainly on fish. Intermediate – clams and fish of the carp family. Infection occurs by ingestion of larvae – they are located in the muscles and subcutaneous tissue of fish. This long-lived parasite in the host body he can live up to 20 years.
This flat worm looks like a Salix leaf up to 5 cm in length and 15 mm in width. Has two suckers – oral and ventral.
The final host is dens cattle. Was relatively few infections with this parasite in humans.
In the environment eggs liver dens fall from the feces of invasive animals. When released into water, they Mature Miramichi, which, for the further development of necessary intermediate host – a mollusk. Further transformation occurs in the liver.
Hepatic dens enters the human body through water and food.
Then, being dens out of his master, re-enters the water and out of water on plants, where he completed his transformation, and he takes the form of adolescaria – sphaerica cysts, ingestion of which leads to infection. It is therefore dangerous to water the gardens and pastures "raw" water, especially stagnant pond.
The name of the parasite speaks for itself – he lives in the liver. After adolescere enters the stomach and the acid dissolves the cyst begins its movement through the gut wall to the liver. They "punch" the shell and fall into the bile ducts, where transformirovalsya in Mature individuals.
A disease that causes hepatic fascioliasis called dens. It can be transmitted by eating meat of invasive animals or unwashed vegetables and fruits that were washed with contaminated water.