Helminths (or simply worms) is very common among certain segments of the population. Children often become infected with worms, fish exposed to other parasites, and the hunters – trichinosis. Scientists were able to prove that the occurrence of various diseases due to infection and worms. Especially important is the relationship of helminth infection with the development of malignant tumors.
In addition, the signs of worms are similar to symptoms of other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and the person may long to get treated, and only one or two courses of de-worming drugs help improve the condition.
How is the infection?
Helminth eggs can get into the human body from four sources:
- Through the soil or water with the eggs of worms. They penetrate the soil through the feces of humans and animals. In addition, eggs can get in direct contact with animals or by eating contaminated food (eggs of helminthes can transfer flies). Therefore, after any contact with the ground it is necessary to wash hands, short cut nails (especially children), and all fruits and vegetables before consumption should be washed thoroughly. Need to be mindful of cats and dogs who walk on the streets and can bring into the house of helminth eggs and cause infection. Flies that live in public restrooms or in the habitats of the animal, can catch food, thus spreading helminth eggs.
- Contact (from one person to another). In this way is transmitted the most common worms – pinworms. Infection occurs very easily. The female pinworm crawls out of the night of the intestine and lays eggs near the anus, provoking intense itching. The child begins to itch and the eggs remain in the hands of the lower and linens, and if not immediately wash my hands, spread to all the surrounding objects. When another person touches these items and not washing hands before eating, worms freely enter the body.
- The parasites occur in the case of eating raw or insufficiently processed fish and meat. If the products were infected with helminths, human infection will be held. This type of infection are those who like the fat-streaked meat, sushi or dried fish.
- In some cases, the worms enter the body after insect bites.
Possible contamination through tap water. In open water or wells is a large number of helminth eggs. Therefore, rural residents must boil water or use special filters.
Children are more susceptible to infection with worms. This is because toddlers have not yet fully formed immune system, and the amount of gastric juice does not allow to actively deal with the worms and their eggs. In addition, preschool children explore the world, sampling the surrounding objects to the taste, thereby increasing the risk of infection. If the child appeared pinworms, you should immediately take measures to prevent infecting other family members.
It should be noted that the worms can't reproduce in the human body. Each species of helminth its life cycle, after which the parasite dies. For example, pinworms in this period is only a few weeks, and the Ascaris – about a year. Worm eggs must be released into the environment (e.g. faeces), where they hatch and the adult parasites and may occur re-infection.
It is important to remember that the increase in the number of worms in the body can only be attributed to re-infection. Therefore, you should strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene and to regularly engage in the prevention of helminthiasis. So, pinworms can be withdrawn from the body without treatment just three weeks, but in the case of this type of worms the risk of re-infection is very high, especially among children.
The main features of bot
The most common symptom of worms in humans is the rapid loss of weight, pallor of the skin, itching in the anus and haggard look. But this is just some obvious cause, then as the symptoms of worms can be much broader and to detect parasites only at carrying out of special surveys.
Signs of worms may include:
- General weakness and disorders of the nervous system. Over its life cycle, the worms secrete large amounts of toxins, and the more parasites in the body is, the stronger the symptoms of intoxication. It appears General weakness and nervous disorders. Patients complain of headache, dizziness, sometimes combined with nausea. Often people believe that they have started to get a migraine, and just take painkillers. In addition, the presence of toxins in the body can cause pain in the joints, increasing the temperature to a feverish level.
- Disorders of the digestive tract. if parasites live in the intestines and not in the tissues or organs, the main feature of helminth infections are disorders of the digestive tract. The patient complains of persistent diarrhea or constipation, nausea, periodic vomiting, abdominal pain (mainly localized around the navel). You may also experience flatulence and pain under the right rib. Brightness to show symptoms depends on the population of parasites. In addition, some types of worms in the process of life secrete hormone-like substances that cause diarrhea, and in the presence of a large number of large parasite overlaps the intestine, which causes constipation.
- Reduced immunity, which leads to a tendency to infectious diseases. Because the worms do not only produce toxins, but deprive men of a useful substances that enter the body, the patient decreases the body's resistance. This can lead to the exacerbation of chronic diseases or onset of inflammation in the nasopharynx. Symptom of worms in adult women can be and inflammation in the genital organs. Girls long presence of pinworms may even provoke inflammation of the uterine appendages.
- Allergic manifestations. Patients with helminthic infestation suffer from poor skin condition. In the process of life helminths reduce the sensitivity of the body, and some proteins are perceived as foreign, which leads to rashes and other allergic reactions. Allergies can appear only on the skin, but also as allergic rhinitis, asthma, or dry cough. In addition, patients with worms become brittle nails, hair and cracks on the heels.
The bodies of the dwelling worms
Helminths are divided into two types depending on where they live:
- Tissue are living tissues and organs (e.g. muscles, lungs, liver or brain, and in some cases, even the lymph vessels).
- Translucent worms settle in the intestines. There are about a hundred species, and they may reside in different parts of the intestine. For example, a tapeworm or a roundworm living in the intestine and pinworm and dwarf tapeworm in the lower part of the small intestine.
Roundworm refers to two types of worms, as in the primary stage of development they are in the blood and may affect any organ.
Symptoms of helminthiasis depending on the kind of worms
Signs of parasitic infection depends not only on its extent and localization, but also the type of worms. The first symptoms begin to appear at different times. For example, symptoms of Ascaris detected on the third day after penetration of the parasites into the body, and other types of worms are detected only in a few weeks. There are also worms, the symptoms of which begin to appear in 6-18 months.
The danger of worm infestation in that when a small number of parasites, the disease can occur without prominent symptoms. Signs appear only in the presence of large parasites (roundworm) or with a large number of parasites.
- The symptoms of pinworms, besides the usual characteristic of helminth infections include severe itching in the anus, which increases at night. An important symptom of infestation is itching and periodicals, appearing for a few days then disappears and occurs again within a few weeks.
- Infection with worms is shown depending on the stage of development of the parasite. When the blood enter the larvae and begin to move to various organs, the patient may receive low-grade fever, weakness and cough, which allocated binding sputum and sometimes blood. Blood test shows high eosinophils, can join an allergic reaction. Mass infection can lead to pneumonia and bronchitis with shortness of breath. At a later stage, the localization of parasites in the gut appear and violations of the digestive tract. a characteristic feature of ascariasis fast weight loss. This is because the parasites produce substances that neutralize the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of proteins. Complications of this type of worm infestation can be intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, acute appendicitis and jaundice.
- Difillobotrioz. lead to anemia and other diseases since the waste products of the worms of this type alter the intestinal microflora, contributing to the development of intestinal dysbiosis.
- Opisthorchiasis, etc. affect the liver, because the symptoms of these worms include jaundice, enlarged liver and spleen, pancreatitis and digestive disorders.
- Urogenital schistosomiasis provokes a diuretic disorders, the main occurrence of which is blood at end of urination.
- Strongyloidiasis manifested a wide range of symptoms that can include disruption of the digestive tract, dyspepsia, and allergies.
Tests for the presence of worms
To determine whether a person has worms, conduct laboratory tests. Additionally, parasitic infestation can also determine the number of positive answers to the following questions:
- The frequent consumption of raw vegetables and fruits without washing,
- Periodic or constant itching in the anus
- Weight loss at reduced or increased appetite
- Skin rashes
- The eating of meat with blood, crude fat and fish
- Periodic nausea and vomiting
- Snoring and grinding the teeth at night
- Frequent digestive disorders: constipation, diarrhea, flatulence and bloating
- Pain in muscles and joints with no physical load
- Restless sleep, nightmares
- Pets or work with animals
- Swelling of the legs
- Yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes
- Allergies (asthma, rashes, allergic cough and runny nose)
- Causeless temperature increase
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Work with children or children of preschool age in the family
- Abdominal pain, which are themselves
- Bitter taste in mouth
If you gave a positive response to seven questions, there is a risk of infestation. If positive responses were 15 or more, you need to contact the doctor to hand over the analysis of a feces on eggs a worm, the General analysis of blood and scraping.
Treatment of helminthiasis
At the moment there are about a dozen drugs from worms of different spectrum. For each species of worms is the special drug of directed action. To assign a particular drug can only be a doctor after examination and tests. This is due to the fact that anti-parasites are quite toxic and wrong selection of medication can trigger negative consequences for the patient. To treat most common worms (pinworms and Ascaris) used such drugs:
- Means of albendazole;
- Based cure levamisole;
Because not all drugs destroy the larvae and eggs of helminths, there is a risk of re-infection. So often, repeat the treatment in two weeks. Folk remedies to combat worms includes grass, tansy, and pumpkin seeds. It is better to buy untreated seeds and eat them together with a thin film, which is in front of the peel. Effective remedy: a glass of crushed seeds should be mixed with honey or jam and eat in the morning. Then for three hours nothing to eat and do an enema. Treatment if necessary, repeat in two weeks.